InternacionalSaludTecnología en salud

Los robots ya son invitados frecuentes en los quirófanos

Hay un robot en el quirófano. Y tiene un escalpelo eléctrico en una de sus manos. No, no es una película de ciencia ficción, un HAL 9000 a la espera de salirse de control, es el futuro que ya está aquí, hace rato.

El más famoso es el Da Vinci, un gigante de cuatro brazos que apareció en el año 2000 y suma más de tres millones de operaciones, algunas de ellas en Colombia.

“Su tercer modelo es en 3D, es decir, le permite al cirujano mayor profundidad de campo, que es supremamente importante”, cuenta el cirujano cardiovascular Juan Santiago Jaramillo Isaza, de Cardiovid, quien se ha entrenado en su uso.

El robot permite rotaciones de 360 grados, por ejemplo, capacidad que no tiene la muñeca de ningún ser humano. “Una gran ventaja e importancia desde el punto de vista quirúrgico”, agrega Jaramillo Isaza.

Permite también magnificar la visión, para ver con mayor detalle las diferentes estructuras de los órganos que componen el cuerpo humano.

“El robot, en ciertas especialidades, ha demostrado que tiene unas bondades especiales. En urología y cirugía de tórax ha tenido desempeños muy importantes para intervenciones mínimamente invasivas”, agrega Jaramillo Isaza, pero reconoce que en cardiología aún no es la opción más útil. Aunque no duda que la cirugía robótica se impondrá en muchas especialidades, por ejemplo, en cirugía plástica, urología, ortopedia, dermatología y otorrinolaringología ha demostrado ser efectivo, con mejoras en los tiempos de intervención y mayor precisión en incisiones y suturas.

El gran enemigo de la masificación de esta tecnología es el costo. Según un informe del diario El País, de España, el hospital Imed Valencia pagó por el robot Da Vinci XI 2,5 millones de euros, alrededor de 80 mil millones de pesos, cerca de una tercera parte de lo que costó la nueva torre del hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, inaugurada el año pasado, en la que se invirtieron 270 mil millones de pesos.

“Además, hay que reemplazar con frecuencia los dispositivos que se ponen en cada uno de los brazos del robot, lo que incrementa el costo de cada intervención”, concluye el cardiólogo.

No solo para operar

La Clínica Universitaria de la Universidad Miguel Hernández, en España, junto con la empresa española Aisoy, desarrollaron un programa para atender a los niños con autismo. Este tratamiento incluye al robot Aisoy1.

“A través de juegos educativos divertidos, estos niños desarrollan sus habilidades sociales, cognitivas, motoras y emocionales que les proporcionan una mayor seguridad y autonomía”, explica la firma en un comunicado.

No es lo único. En la edición de julio de 2016, el Journal of Computational Biology contó sobre el diseño de robots biomédicos, capaces de analizar y procesar big-data y que podrán (por lo menos eso esperan sus creadores) dar respuestas sobre condiciones de salud complejas como las degenerativas y el cáncer. O la búsquedas de medicinas para las llamadas enfermedades raras o huérfanas. En este diseño de los robots biomédicos también participan la Universidad de Harvard y el Brigham and Women Hospital, ubicado en Boston.

Referencia a www.elcolombiano.com : http://www.elcolombiano.com/colombia/salud/los-robots-ya-son-invitados-frecuentes-en-los-quirofanos-XD7126365

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