PolíticaPolítica fiscal

Multinacionales de EE. UU. evitan impuestos con paraísos fiscales

Apple, Microsoft, Pfizer, Goldman Sachs, General Electric (GE), Chevron, Wal-Mart y Procter & Gamble, PepsiCo, Exxon Mobil y Hewlett-Packard se cuentan entre las 50 empresas más grandes de Estados Unidos que asegura la oenegé Oxfam aumentan el uso de paraísos fiscales para eludir o buscar rebajar el pago de impuestos en ese país.

Según cuentas de la institución orientada a temas de pobreza y equidad, medio centenar de empresas globales “ocultaron” 1,6 billones de dólares en 2015, 200 mil millones más que el año anterior.

Esa operación es posible mediante “una red secreta y opaca” de 1.751 filiales, 143 más que las que usaron en 2014, declaradas en jurisdicciones que no cobran impuestos o son mínimos y ofrecen secreto fiscal y bancario. Además, crear una de esas empresas, conocidas como offshore (costa afuera), tiene bajo valor de registro y sostenimiento.

En esas condiciones, Oxfam concluye que la elusión de grandes empresas en Estados Unidos cuesta unos 135 mil millones de dólares al anuales al fisco de ese país, a pesar de que tuvieron ganancias que suman 4,2 billones de dólares: “usaron paraísos fiscales para reducir su tasa efectiva de impuestos a tan solo 25,9 %, estimó Oxfam, debajo de la tasa promedio de 35 %.

La tecnológica Apple lidera la lista con más de 200.000 millones de dólares guardados en firmas offshore, seguido de la farmacéutica Pfizer (193.600 millones) y de Microsoft (124.000 millones), precisó un reporte de AFP desde Washington.

“Se estima que las mismas artimañas que utilizan las grandes empresas para no pagar los impuestos que les corresponden en Estados Unidos privan a los países pobres de 100.000 millones de dólares al año, con los que podrían financiar escuelas, hospitales, infraestructuras de transporte y otras herramientas para reducir la pobreza”, añade la versión digital del estudio.

El informe aclara que no se acusa a ninguna empresa de violar la ley, sino que la misma información que reportan las empresas muestran que el sistema de impuestos estadounidense permite eludir el pago de impuestos.

Estudio no es en vano

El estudio se presenta cuando comienzan a ventilarse la reforma tributaria que el presidente Donald Trump quiere que apruebe el Congreso de Estados Unidos y que incluiría la propuesta de reducir el impuesto a empresas de un 35 % a un 15 % (ver Paréntesis).

“Si prosperan las reformas fiscales propuestas Trump, estas 50 empresas recibirían entre 312.000 millones de dólares y y 327.000 millones por beneficios que han ocultado offshore, a los que se sumarían grandes beneficios financieros gracias a unos tipos impositivos más bajos y a futuras ventajas fiscales adicionales”, llamó la atención ayer Robbie Silverman, especialista líder de Oxfam en temas fiscales.

Fuente: www.elcolombiano.com : http://www.elcolombiano.com/negocios/empresas/gigantes-de-ee-uu-evitan-pagar-impuestos-oxfam-BC6325443

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