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Unión Europea impone la sanción más alta de la historia a Google

La Comisión Europea impuso este miércoles 4.342 millones de euros de multa a Google por aprovecharse de su sistema operativo para celulares y tabletas Android para consolidar la posición dominante de su motor de búsqueda.

“Google utilizó prácticas ilegales para cimentar su posición dominante en la búsqueda en internet”, explicó en rueda de prensa la comisaria europea de Competencia, Margrethe Vestager, quien advirtió que la empresa debe poner fin a esta práctica en un plazo de 90 días so pena de nuevas multas.

El gigante californiano con sede en Mountain View (oeste de Estados Unidos) anunció que recurrirá la decisión, al considerar que “Android ha creado más opciones para todos [los consumidores], no menos” como le reprocha Bruselas, indicó su vocero, Al Verney.

Esta nueva multa europea contra una compañía del Silicon Valley podría deteriorar todavía más la relación con el presidente de Estados Unidos, Donald Trump, ya tensas por la disputa comercial y sus diferencias sobre la OTAN, el acuerdo nuclear iraní,…

El próximo miércoles, el titular de la Comisión, Jean-Claude Juncker, viajará a Washington para intentar desactivar el conflicto comercial con un presidente estadounidense dispuesto a aumentar los aranceles a los vehículos europeos.

La sanción, que podría haber alcanzado el 10% del volumen de negocios mundial de Alphabet (matriz de Google), es además la más elevada por abuso de posición dominante, después de los 2.424 millones de euros impuestos en 2017 a Google por favorecer su comparador de precios ‘Google Shoping’ en su buscador.

90 días

Android, un sistema operativo utilizado por el 80% de los celulares en el mundo y que equivale al IOS para iPhone de Apple, está en el punto de mira de la Comisión Europea desde hace varios años.

Bruselas acusa a Google de haber obligado a los fabricantes de dispositivos móviles, como el surcoreano Samsung o el chino Huawei, a preinstalar la aplicación Google Search y su navegador Chrome para concender la licencia de su tienda de aplicaciones Play Store.

La empresa también habría pagado a grandes fabricantes y operadores de redes móviles para que preinstalaran exclusivamente Google Search en sus dispositivos y habría limitado el desarrollo de nuevas versiones de código abierto (’open source’) de Android.

En abril de 2016, la Comisión Europea presentó a Google su pliego de cargos, pero la compañía de Mountain View no logró despejar sus preocupaciones. Bruselas da este miércoles además 90 días de plazo para corregir estas prácticas que considera “ilegales”.

Si no cumple, el ejecutivo comunitario podría imponer multas coercitivas de hasta el 5 % del volumen de negocios mundial medio diario de Alphabet, que en 2017 registró 110.900 millones de dólares (94.700 millones de euros).

En el caso de su comparador de precios ‘Google Shopping’, la compañía presentó una serie de soluciones en septiembre que Bruselas sigue examinando.

El grupo californiano también presentó en septiembre de 2017 un recurso contra la decisión de Bruselas ante la justicia europea. La decisión de la justicia podría tardar unos dos años vista la complejidad del caso.

Además de Shopping y Android, el ejecutivo comunitario mantiene un tercer pulso con Google por abuso de posición dominante, en concreto por su sistema de publicidad AdSense (80% del mercado en Europa). La investigación abierta podría terminar con una nueva multa.

CONTEXTO DE LA NOTICIA

LAS 5 MAYORES MULTAS

La sanción de 4.342 millones de euros impuesta este miércoles por la Comisión Europea al gigante estadounidense de internet Google es la más voluminosa decidida por abuso de posición dominante, pero no la única.

A continuación, las cinco mayores multas impuestas en la historia de la Unión Europea (UE) por abuso de posición dominante:

1. Google (2018) –

Por aprovechar la posición dominante de su sistema operativo para teléfonos inteligentes y tabletas Android para favorecer sus propias aplicaciones, como su motor de búsqueda, la Comisión Europea sanciona a Google con 4.342 millones de euros de multa (unos 5.046 millones de dólares).

2. Google (2017)

El ejecutivo comunitario impuso 2.424 millones de euros a Google por favorecer en su popular buscador a su servicio Google Shopping frente a sus rivales. La compañía recurrió la decisión ante la justicia europea en septiembre de 2017.

3. Intel (2009)

Al fabricante de microprocesadores Intel se le impuso una multa de 1.060 millones de euros, después que la Comisión Europea lo acusara de poner en marcha entre 2002 y 2007 una estrategia destinada a excluir del mercado a su único rival serio, AMD. La justicia europea decidió en septiembre examinar de nuevo el caso.

4. Qualcomm (2018)

El gigante estadounidense de componentes electrónicos Qualcomm recibió en enero una sanción de 997 millones de euros por haber sobornado a Apple para que sólo utilizara sus productos y no los de los competidores en sus aparatos iPhones y en sus Ipads.

5. Microsoft (2004)

497 millones de euros. Esta fue la multa impuesta en 2004 al grupo informático Microsoft por negarse a aportar documentación técnica completa a sus rivales para que pudieran concebir programas plenamente compatibles con el sistema operativo Windows.

También se le acusó de vincular su lector multimedia Windows Media Player con este sistema para superar a su competencia.

Por incumplir sus compromisos cerrados con el ejecutivo comunitario, Bruselas le impuso otra multa de 860 millones de euros en 2008. En total, las sanciones impuestas a Microsoft por la Comisión ascienden a unos 2.000 millones de euros.

Referencia a www.elcolombiano.com  http://m.elcolombiano.com/internacional/europa/union-europea-impondra-millonaria-sancion-a-google-por-android-IG9019028

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